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NBOME

Research

Examining Concurrent Validity Between COMLEX-USA Level 2-Cognitive Evaluation and COMLEX-USA Level 2-Performance Evaluation
Craig B, Wang X, Sandella JM, Tsai T-H, Kuo D, Finch C. Examining concurrent validity between COMLEX-USA Level 2-Cognitive Evaluation and COMLEX-USA Level 2-Performance Evaluation. Journal of Osteopathic Medicine. 2021. doi:10.1515/jom-2021-0007

Meaningful Use of COMSAE Phase 1 in Preparation for COMLEX-USA Level 1
Wang X, Maeda H, Craig B, Tsai T-H, Sandella JM, Fleury M. Meaningful use of COMSAE Phase 1 in preparation for COMLEX-USA Level 1. Journal of Osteopathic Medicine. 2021. doi:0.1515/jom-2020-0190

Selected Research Presentations
Peterson K, Lorion A. SP Assessments: A Thing of the Future as well as the Past. Presentation at: 2021 Association for Standardized Patient Educators Annual […]

An Investigation of the Relationship Between COMLEX-USA Licensure Examination Performance and State Licensing Board Disciplinary Actions
Roberts W, Gross GA, Gimpel JR, Smith LL, Arnhart K, Pei X, Young A. An Investigation of the Relationship Between COMLEX-USA Licensure Examination Performance and State Licensing Board Disciplinary Actions. Academic Medicine. 2020;95(6):925-930. doi:10.1097/ACM.0000000000003046

CATALYST: Piloting a Longitudinal Assessment and Learning Program for Board Recertification and Continuous Professional Development
Horber DT, Flamini J, Gimpel JR, Tsai T-H(E, Shrum K, Hudson K. CATALYST: Piloting a Longitudinal Assessment and Learning Program for Board Recertification and Continuous Professional Development. Journal of Osteopathic Medicine. 2020;120(3):190-200. doi:10.7556/jaoa.2020.031

2019 United States Osteopathic Medical Regulatory Summit: Consensus, Recommendations, and Next Steps in Defining Osteopathic Distinctiveness
Gimpel JR, Belanger SI, Knebal JA, LaBaere RJ, Shaffer DC, Shannon SC, Shears T, Steingard SA, Turner M, Williams DG. 2019 United States Osteopathic Medical Regulatory Summit: Consensus, Recommendations, and Next Steps in Defining Osteopathic Distinctiveness. Journal of Osteopathic Medicine. 2020;120(1):35-44. doi:10.7556/jaoa.2020.005

A Validity Study of COMLEX-USA Level 2-CE and COMAT Clinical Subjects: Concurrent and Predictive Evidence
Hudson KM, Tsai T-H, Finch C, Dickerman JL, Liu S, Shen L. A Validity Study of COMLEX-USA Level 2-CE and COMAT Clinical Subjects: Concurrent and Predictive Evidence. Journal of Graduate Medical Education. 2019;11(5):521-526. doi:10.4300/JGME-D-19-00157.1

Automated Test Assembly Using SAS Operations Research Software in a Medical Licensing Examination
Shao C, Liu S, Yang H, Tsai T-H. Automated Test Assembly Using SAS Operations Research Software in a Medical Licensing Examination. Applied Psychological Measurement. 2020;44(3):219-233. doi:10.1177/0146621619847169

Enhancing COMLEX-USA: Evidence-based redesign of the osteopathic medical licensure examination program
Horber DT, Gimpel JR. Enhancing COMLEX-USA: Evidence-based redesign of the osteopathic medical licensure examination program. Journal of Medical Regulation. 2018;104(3):11-18. doi:10.30770/2572-1852-104.3.11

Association between performance on COMLEX-USA and the American College of Osteopathic Family Physicians in-service examination
Hudson KM, Feinberg G, Hempstead L, Zipp C, Gimpel JR, Wang Y. Association between performance on COMLEX-USA and the American College of Osteopathic Family Physicians in-service examination. Journal of Graduate Medical Education. 2018;10(5):543-547. doi:10.4300/JGME-D-17-00997.1

Evidence-based redesign of the COMLEX-USA series
Gimpel JR, Horber DT, Sandella JM, Knebl JA, Thornburg JE. Evidence-based redesign of the COMLEX-USA series. Journal of the American Osteopathic Association. 2017;117(4):253-261. doi:10.7556/jaoa.2017.043

Comparison study of judged clinical skills competence from standard setting ratings generated under different administration conditions
Roberts WL, Boulet J, Sandella JM. Comparison study of judged clinical skills competence from standard setting ratings generated under different administration conditions. Advances in Health Sciences Education. 2017;22:1279-1292. doi:10.1007/s10459-017-9766-1

The predictive validity of the National Board of Osteopathic Medical Examiners’ COMLEX-USA examinations with regard to outcomes on American Board of Family Medicine examinations
O’Neill TR, Peabody MR, Song H. The predictive validity of the National Board of Osteopathic Medical Examiners' COMLEX-USA examinations with regard to outcomes on American Board of Family Medicine examinations. Academic Medicine. 2016;91(11):1568-1575. doi:10.1097/ACM.0000000000001254

Osteopathic manipulative technique scores on the COMLEX-USA Level 2-PE: An analysis of the skills assessed
Smith LL, Xu W, Sandella JM, Dowling DJ. Osteopathic manipulative technique scores on the COMLEX-USA Level 2-PE: An analysis of the skills assessed. Journal of Osteopathic Medicine. 2016;116(6):392-397. doi:10.7556/jaoa.2016.080

Preparation strategies of osteopathic medical students for the COMLEX-USA Level 2-PE
Sandella JM, Peters A, Smith LL, Gimpel JR. Preparation strategies of osteopathic medical students for the COMLEX-USA Level 2-PE. Journal of Osteopathic Medicine. 2016;116(4):234-242. doi: 10.7556/jaoa.2016.048

The use of COMLEX-USA and USMLE for residency applicant selection
Sandella JM, Gimpel JR, Smith LL, Boulet JR. The use of COMLEX-USA and USMLE for residency applicant selection. Journal of Graduate Medical Education. 2016;8(3):358-363. doi:10.4300/JGME-D-15-00246.1

Redefining competency domains for osteopathic medical practice
Gimpel, JR. Redefining competency domains for osteopathic medical practice. Journal of Osteopathic Medicine. 2016;116(9):568-570. doi:10.7556/jaoa.2016.113

Relationships between the Comprehensive Osteopathic Medical Achievement Test (COMAT) subject examinations and the COMLEX-USA level 2-cognitive evaluation
Li F, Kalinowski K, Song H, Bates B. Relationships between the Comprehensive Osteopathic Medical Achievement Test (COMAT) subject examinations and the COMLEX-USA level 2-cognitive evaluation. Journal of Osteopathic Medicine. 2014;114(9):714-721. doi:10.7556/jaoa.2014.140

Stratified item selection and exposure control in unidimensional adaptive testing in the presence of 2D data
Kalinowski KE, Natesan P, Henson RK. Stratified item selection and exposure control in unidimensional adaptive testing in the presence of 2D data. Applied Psychological Measurement. 2014;38(7):563-576. doi:10.1177/0146621614536768

Reliability and Validity of Conversion Formulas Between Comprehensive Osteopathic Medical Licensing Examination of the United States Level 1 and United States Medical Licensing Examination Step 1
Lee AS, Chang L, Feng E, Helf S. Reliability and Validity of Conversion Formulas Between Comprehensive Osteopathic Medical Licensing Examination of the United States Level 1 and United States Medical Licensing Examination Step 1. Journal of Graduate Medical Education. 2014;6(2):280-283. doi:10.4300/JGME-D-13-00302.1

Patterns of misrepresentation of clinical findings on patient notes during the COMLEX-USA level 2-PE
Sandella JM, Smith LA, Gallagher LA, Langenau EE. Patterns of misrepresentation of clinical findings on patient notes during the COMLEX-USA level 2-PE. Journal of Osteopathic Medicine. 2014;114(1):22-29. doi:10.7556/jaoa.2014.004

Consistency of interrater scoring of student performances of osteopathic manipulative treatment on COMLEX-USA level 2-PE
Sandella JM, Smith LA, Dowling DJ. Consistency of interrater scoring of student performances of osteopathic manipulative treatment on COMLEX-USA level 2-PE. Journal of Osteopathic Medicine. 2014;114(4):253-258. doi:10.7556/jaoa.2014.050

The relationship between COMLEX-USA scores and performance on the AOBEM Part I certifying exam
Li F, Gimpel JR, Arenson E, Song H, Bates BP, Ludwin F. The relationship between COMLEX-USA scores and performance on the AOBEM Part I certifying exam. Journal of Osteopathic Medicine. 2014;114(4):260-266. doi:10.7556/jaoa.2014.051

Keyboard data entry use among osteopathic medical students and residents
Helstrom JM, Langenau EE, Sandella JM, Mote BL. Keyboard data entry use among osteopathic medical students and residents. Journal Osteopathic Medicine. 2014;114(4):274-82. doi:10.7556/jaoa.2014.053

Investigation of standardized patient ratings of humanistic competence on a medical licensure examination using Many-Facet Rasch Measurement and generalizability theory
Zhang X, Roberts WL. Investigation of standardized patient ratings of humanistic competence on a medical licensure examination using Many-Facet Rasch Measurement and generalizability theory. Advances in Health Sciences Education: Theory and Practice. 2013;18(5):929-944. doi:10.1007/s10459-012-9433-5

Performance on COMLEX-USA exams predicts performance on EM residency in-training exams
Pierce DL, Mirre-Gonzalez MA, Carter MA, Nug D, Salamanca Y. Performance on COMLEX-USA exams predicts performance on EM residency in-training exams. Academic Emergency Medicine. 2013;20(5 Suppl 1):S219. doi:10.1111/acem.12115

Frequency of specific osteopathic manipulative treatment modalities used by candidates while taking COMLEX-USA level 2-PE
Langenau EE, Dowling DJ, Dyer C, Roberts WL. Frequency of specific osteopathic manipulative treatment modalities used by candidates while taking COMLEX-USA level 2-PE. Journal of Osteopathic Medicine. 2012;112(8):509-513. doi:10.7556/jaoa.2012.112.8.509

Clinical skills assessment of procedural and advanced communication skills: Performance expectations of residency program directors
Langenau EE, Zhang X, Roberts WL, De Champlain AF, Boulet JR. Clinical skills assessment of procedural and advanced communication skills: Performance expectations of residency program directors. Medical Education Online. 2012;17(1). doi:10.3402/meo.v17i0.18812

Prediction of osteopathic medical school performance on the basis of MCAT score, GPA, sex, undergraduate major, and undergraduate institution
Dixon D. Prediction of osteopathic medical school performance on the basis of MCAT score, GPA, sex, undergraduate major, and undergraduate institution. Journal of Osteopathic Medicine. 2012;112(4):175-181. doi:10.7556/jaoa.2012.112.4.175

An evaluation of cost and appropriateness of care as recommended by candidates on a national clinical skills examination
Sandella JM, Boulet JR, Langenau EE. An evaluation of cost and appropriateness of care as recommended by candidates on a national clinical skills examination. Teaching and Learning in Medicine. 2012;24(4):303-308. doi:10.1080/10401334.2012.715259

An investigation of construct validity of humanistic clinical skills on a medical licensure examination
Roberts WL, Solomon M, Langenau E. An investigation of construct validity of humanistic clinical skills on a medical licensure examination. Patient Education and Counseling. 2011;82(2):214-221. doi:10.1016/j.pec.2010.03.016

Fairness to students top priority
Langenau EE, Sandella JM, Gimpel JR. Fairness to students top priority. Family Medicine. 2012;44(1):53-54. PMID:22241343

Modeling relationships between traditional preadmission measures and clinical skills performance on a medical licensure examination
Roberts WL, Pugliano G, Langenau EE, Boulet JR. Modeling relationships between traditional preadmission measures and clinical skills performance on a medical licensure examination. Advances in Health Sciences Education. 2011;17(3):403–417. doi:10.1007/s10459-011-9321-4

Pass/fail patterns of candidates who failed COMLEX-USA level 2-PE because of misrepresentation of clinical findings on postencounter notes
Langenau EE, Sandella JM. Pass/fail patterns of candidates who failed COMLEX-USA level 2-PE because of misrepresentation of clinical findings on postencounter notes. Journal of Osteopathic Medicine. 2011;111(7):432-436. doi:10.7556/jaoa.2011.111.7.432

Relationship between standardized patient checklist item accuracy and performing arts experience
Langenau EE, Dyer C, Roberts WL, De Champlain AF, Montrey DP, Sandella JM. Relationship between standardized patient checklist item accuracy and performing arts experience. Simulation in Healthcare. 2011;6(3):150-154. doi:10.1097/SIH.0b013e31821687b3

A primer on how to select osteopathic applicants to an allopathic general surgery residency
Schenarts PJ, Termuhlen PM, Pasley J, Rose JS, Friedell ML. A primer on how to select osteopathic applicants to an allopathic general surgery residency. Journal of Surgical Education. 2011;68(3):239-245. doi:10.1016/j.jsurg.2011.01.001

Relationship between encounter time and candidate performance on COMLEX-USA level 2-PE
Sandella JM, Roberts WL, Langenau EE. Relationship between encounter time and candidate performance on COMLEX-USA level 2-PE. Journal of Osteopathic Medicine. 2011;111(1):38-43. doi:10.7556/jaoa.2011.111.1.38

Relationships between high stakes clinical skills exam scores and program director global competency ratings of first-year pediatric residents
Langenau EE, Pugliano G, Roberts WL. Relationships between high stakes clinical skills exam scores and program director global competency ratings of first-year pediatric residents. Medical Education Online. 2011;16(1). doi:10.3402/meo.v16i0.7362

Quality assurance best practices for simulation-based examinations
Furman GE, Smee S, Wilson C. Quality assurance best practices for simulation-based examinations. Simulation in Healthcare. 2010;5(4):226-231. doi:10.1097/SIH.0b013e3181da5c93

Five-year summary of COMLEX-USA level 2-PE examinee performance and survey data
Langenau E, Dyer C, Roberts WL, Wilson C, Gimpel JR. Five-year summary of COMLEX-USA level 2-PE examinee performance and survey data. Journal of Osteopathic Medicine. 2010;110(3):114-125. doi:10.7556/jaoa.2010.110.3.114

Summary of ACOP (American College of Osteopathic Pediatricians) program directors’ annual reports for first-year residents and relationships between resident competency performance ratings and COMLEX-USA test scores
Langenau EE, Pugliano G, Roberts BR, Hostoffer R. Summary of ACOP (American College of Osteopathic Pediatricians) program directors’ annual reports for first-year residents and relationships between resident competency performance ratings and COMLEX-USA test scores. Electronic Journal of the American College of Osteopathic Physicians. 2010;2(7). https://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED514030

Effect of first-encounter pretest on pass/fail rates of a clinical skills medical licensure examination
Roberts WL, McKinley DW, Boulet JR. Effect of first-encounter pretest on pass/fail rates of a clinical skills medical licensure examination. Advances in Health Sciences Education: Theory and Practice. 2010;15(2):219-227. doi:10.1007/s10459-009-9193-z

Relationship between COMLEX and USMLE scores among osteopathic medical students who take both examinations
Chick DA, Friedman HP, Young VB, Solomon DE. Relationship between COMLEX and USMLE scores among osteopathic medical students who take both examinations. Teaching and Learning in Medicine. 2010;22(1):3-7. doi:10.1080/10401330903445422

Using standardized patients to assess the communication skills of graduating physicians for the comprehensive osteopathic medical licensing examination (COMLEX) level 2-performance evaluation (level 2-PE)
Weidner AC, Gimpel JR, Boulet JR, Solomon M. Using standardized patients to assess the communication skills of graduating physicians for the comprehensive osteopathic medical licensing examination (COMLEX) level 2-performance evaluation (level 2-PE). Teaching and Learning in Medicine. 2010;22(1):8-15. doi:10.1080/10401330903445604

Student performance on levels 1 and 2-CE of COMLEX-USA: Do elective upper-level undergraduate science courses matter?
Wong SK, Ramirez J, Helf SC. Student performance on levels 1 and 2-CE of COMLEX-USA: Do elective upper-level undergraduate science courses matter? Journal of Osteopathic Medicine. 2009;109(11):592-598. doi:10.7556/jaoa.2009.109.11.592

Patient note fabrication and consequences of unprofessional behavior in a high-stakes clinical skills licensing examination
Sandella JM, Roberts WL, Gallagher LA, Gimpel JR, Langenau EE, Boulet JR. Patient note fabrication and consequences of unprofessional behavior in a high-stakes clinical skills licensing examination. Academic Medicine. 2009;84(10 Suppl):S70-73. doi:10.1097/ACM.0b013e3181b37e36

The use of standardized patient assessments for certification and licensure decisions
Boulet JR, Smee SM, Dillon GF, Gimpel JR. The use of standardized patient assessments for certification and licensure decisions. Simulation in Healthcare.2009;4(1):35-42. doi:10.1097/SIH.0b013e318182fc6c

COMLEX-USA and in-service examination scores: Tools for evaluating medical knowledge among residents
Sevensma SC, Navarre G, Richards RK. COMLEX-USA and in-service examination scores: Tools for evaluating medical knowledge among residents. Journal of Osteopathic Medicine. 2008;108(12):713-716. doi:10.7556/jaoa.2008.108.12.713

Standardized patients and mechanical simulators in teaching and assessment at colleges of osteopathic medicine
Gimpel JR, Weidner AC, Boulet JR, Wilson C, Errichetti AM. Standardized patients and mechanical simulators in teaching and assessment at colleges of osteopathic medicine. Journal of Osteopathic Medicine. 2007;107(12):557-561. doi:10.7556/jaoa.2007.107.12.557

Relationships between clinical rotation subscores, COMLEX-USA examination results, and school-based performance measures
Cope MK, Baker HH, Foster RW, Boisvert CS. Relationships between clinical rotation subscores, COMLEX-USA examination results, and school-based performance measures. Journal of Osteopathic Medicine. 2007;107(11):502-510. doi:10.7556/jaoa.2007.107.11.502

Does the medical college admission test predict global academic performance in osteopathic medical school?
Evans P, Wen FK. Does the medical college admission test predict global academic performance in osteopathic medical school? Journal of Osteopathic Medicine. 2007;107(4):157-162. doi:10.7556/jaoa.2007.107.4.157

Relationships between scores on the COMLEX-USA level 2-performance evaluation and selected school-based performance measures
Baker HH, Cope MK, Adelman MA, Schuler S, Foster RW, Gimpel JR. Relationships between scores on the COMLEX-USA level 2-performance evaluation and selected school-based performance measures. Journal of Osteopathic Medicine. 2006;109(5):290-295. doi:10.7556/jaoa.2006.106.5.290

Survey on the clinical skills of osteopathic medical students
Gimpel JR, Boulet JR, Weidner AC. Survey on the clinical skills of osteopathic medical students. Journal of Osteopathic Medicine. 2006;106(5):296-301. doi:10.7556/jaoa.2006.106.5.296

Research methodology: Procedures for establishing defensible absolute passing scores on performance examinations in health professions education
Downing SM, Tekian A, Yudkowsky R. Research methodology: Procedures for establishing defensible absolute passing scores on performance examinations in health professions education. Teaching and Learning in Medicine. 2006;18(1):50–57. doi:10.1207/s15328015tlm1801_11

A work-centered approach for setting passing scores on performance-based assessments
McKinley DW, Boulet JR, Hambleton RK. A work-centered approach for setting passing scores on performance-based assessments. Evaluation & the Health Professions. 2005;28(3):349–369. doi:10.1177/0163278705278282

Assessing the ability of medical students to perform osteopathic manipulative treatment techniques
Boulet JR, Gimpel JR, Dowling DJ, Finley M. Assessing the ability of medical students to perform osteopathic manipulative treatment techniques. Journal of Osteopathic Medicine. 2004;104(5):203-211. doi:10.7556/jaoa.2004.104.5.203

Relation between variables of preadmission, medical school performance, and COMLEX–USA levels 1 and 2 performance
Dixon D. Relation between variables of preadmission, medical school performance, and COMLEX–USA levels 1 and 2 performance. Journal of Osteopathic Medicine. 2004;4(8):332-336. doi:10.7556/jaoa.2004.104.8.332

Relations between academic performance by medical students and COMLEX–USA level 2: A multisite analysis
Evans P, Goodson LB, Schoffman SI, Baker HH. Relations between academic performance by medical students and COMLEX–USA level 2: A multisite analysis. Journal of Osteopathic Medicine. 2003;103(11):551-556. doi:10.7556/jaoa.2003.103.11.551

Predictive validity of osteopathic medical licensing examinations for osteopathic medical knowledge measured by graduate written examinations
Cavalieri TA, Shen L, Slick GL. Predictive validity of osteopathic medical licensing examinations for osteopathic medical knowledge measured by graduate written examinations. Journal of Osteopathic Medicine. 2003;103(7):337-342. doi:10.7556/jaoa.2003.103.7.337

Evaluating the clinical skills of osteopathic medical students
Gimpel JR, Boulet DO, Errichetti AM. Evaluating the clinical skills of osteopathic medical students. Journal of Osteopathic Medicine. 2003;103(6):267-279. doi:10.7556/jaoa.2003.103.6.267

Setting defensible performance standards on OSCEs and standardized patient examinations
Boulet JR, De Champlain AF, McKinley DW. Setting defensible performance standards on OSCEs and standardized patient examinations. Medical Teacher. 2003;25(3):245–249. doi:10.1080/0142159031000100274

Relationship of osteopathic medical licensure examinations with undergraduate admission measures and predictive value of identifying future performance in osteopathic principles and practice/osteopathic manipulative medicine courses and rotations
Meoli FG, Wallace WS, Kaiser-Smith J, Shen L. Relationship of osteopathic medical licensure examinations with undergraduate admission measures and predictive value of identifying future performance in osteopathic principles and practice/osteopathic manipulative medicine courses and rotations. Journal of Osteopathic Medicine. 2002;102(11):615-620. doi:10.7556/jaoa.2002.102.11.615

State of the art in standardized patient programs: A survey of osteopathic medical schools
Errichetti AM, Gimpel JR, Boulet JR. State of the art in standardized patient programs: A survey of osteopathic medical schools. Journal of Osteopathic Medicine. 2002;102(11):627-631. doi:10.7556/jaoa.2002.102.11.615

Correlation of scores for the comprehensive osteopathic medical licensing examination with osteopathic medical school grades
Hartman SE, Bates BP, Sprafka SA. Correlation of scores for the comprehensive osteopathic medical licensing examination with osteopathic medical school grades. Journal of Osteopathic Medicine. 2001;101(6):347-349. doi:10.7556/jaoa.2001.101.6.347

Setting performance standards on complex educational assessments
Hambleton RK, Jaeger RM, Plake BS, Mills C. Setting performance standards on complex educational assessments. Applied Psychological Measurement. 2000;24(4):355–366. doi:10.1177/01466210022031804

Relationship between academic achievement and COMLEX-USA level 1 performance: A multisite study
Baker HH, Foster RW, Bates BP, et al. Relationship between academic achievement and COMLEX-USA level 1 performance: A multisite study. Journal of Osteopathic Medicine. 2000;100(4):238-242. doi:10.7556/jaoa.2000.100.4.238

Relationship of preadmission variables and first- and second-year course performance to performance on the National Board of Osteopathic Medical Examiners’ COMLEX–USA level 1 examination
Baker HH, Cope MK, Fisk R, Gorby JN, Foster RW. Relationship of preadmission variables and first- and second-year course performance to performance on the National Board of Osteopathic Medical Examiners’ COMLEX–USA level 1 examination. Journal of Osteopathic Medicine. 2000;100(3):153-161. doi:10.7556/jaoa.2000.100.3.153

A generalized examinee-centered method for setting standards on achievement tests
Cohen AS, Kane MT, Crooks TJ. A generalized examinee-centered method for setting standards on achievement tests. Applied Measurement in Education. 1999;12(4):343–366. doi:10.1207/S15324818AME1204_2

Designing and evaluating standard-setting procedures for licensure and certification tests
Kane MT, Crooks TJ, Cohen AS. Designing and evaluating standard-setting procedures for licensure and certification tests. Advances in Health Sciences Education. 1999;4(3):195-207. doi:10.1023/A:1009849528247

The credibility and comparability of standards. Applied Measurement in Education
Norcini JJ, Shea JA. The credibility and comparability of standards. Applied Measurement in Education. 1997;10(1):39–59. doi: 10.1207/s15324818ame1001_3

A contrasting-groups approach to standard setting for performance assessments of clinical skills
Clauser BE, Clyman SG. A contrasting-groups approach to standard setting for performance assessments of clinical skills. Academic Medicine. 1994;69(10):S42–S44. doi:10.1097/00001888-199410000-00037

Guidelines for assessing clinical competence
Newble D, Dauphinee WD, Macdonald M, Dawson B, Page G, Swanson DB, et al. Guidelines for assessing clinical competence. Teaching and Learning in Medicine. 1994;6(3):213-220. doi:10.1080/10401339409539680

Passing Scores: A Manual for Setting Standards of Performance on Education and Occupational Tests
Livingston SA, Zieky MJ. Passing Scores: A Manual for Setting Standards of Performance on Education and Occupational Tests. Educational Testing Service. 1982. https://www.ets.org/Media/Research/pdf/passing_scores.pdf

Scales, Norms and Equivalent Scores
Angoff WH, Thorndike RL. Scales, Norms and Equivalent Scores. American Council on Education. 1971:508-600. https://www.ets.org/Media/Research/pdf/Angoff.Scales.Norms.Equiv.Scores.pdf

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